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Rottweiler Dog Breed Information: Facts, Traits, Pictures & More

Are you looking for a sturdy, protective, and devoted canine companion to add to your family? Rottweilers are known for their fierce and aggressive personalities, but there is so much more to this loving and loyal doggo! Find out what you can expect from the Rottweiler in this article, from nutrition needs, exercise requirements, grooming expectations, and more!

Janet Wall

Last Updated: August 6, 2021 | 13 min read

Rottweiler

The confident, loyal Rottweiler is a member of the working group. These trusty family guardians currently rank at number eight on the American Kennel Club chart. So, would a Rottweiler make a good pet for your family?

Rottweilers are big dogs that aren’t suited to apartment living, and you’ll need a spacious home with a garden if you want to give a home to one of these pups. Rotties can stand up to 27 inches at the shoulder. And these dogs are muscular, powerful animals that can look imposing, especially to strangers visiting your home.

However, a thoughtfully raised, well-socialized Rottweiler is confident and even-tempered, and brave but not aggressive. Although sometimes aloof, the Rottweiler is surprisingly playful and has an endearing personality, once you get to know him. That said, if you take on a Rottweiler puppy, you should understand that early socialization is crucial to ensure that your dog grows into an obedient, calm animal. Let’s dive in and find out more about the Rottweiler!

Breed Overview
    • weight iconWeight80-135 Pounds
    • height iconHeight22-27 Inches
    • lifespan iconLifespan8-10 Years
    • color iconColorsBlack With Rust, Tan, or Mahogany Markings
  • Child Friendliness
  • Canine Friendliness
  • Training Difficulty
  • Grooming Upkeep
  • Breed Health
  • Exercise Needs
  • Puppy Costs

History

Black and Tan Dog Looking Left
Rottweilers are one of America’s favorite dogs because of it’s known loyalty.

The Rottweiler is descended from dogs that were used as herding animals by the Romans, as their legions marched through Europe. The pups bred with local dogs en route, and in the German town of Rottweil, the resulting crossbreeds were used by local butchers to drive their cattle to market. They are Molosser dogs and share genetic traits with many dogs, including bully breeds, Mastiffs, Elkhounds, Rhodesian Ridgebacks, and more.

The Rottweiler protected the butcher, guarding his takings from thieves. Robust, strong Rotties were also used to pull delivery carts carrying meat and milk to the butcher’s customers. In the middle ages, Rottweilers were used to hunt boar, which are wild pigs with tusks.

Unfortunately, the arrival of motorized transport negated the need for the Rottie. Consequently, the breed almost died out altogether, but luckily, German dog lovers kept the Rottweiler alive. People across Europe were impressed by the breed’s loyalty and the dogs’ work ethic, and so the Rottweiler gained in popularity, even when compared to other dogs like the GSD.

Now, the Rottie is a firm favorite in the U.S. and around the world. The versatile modern Rottweiler has worked in a variety of very different fields, including as a police dog, service dog, herding dog, obedience competitor, and even as a therapy dog.

The intelligent, powerful Rottie is also successful in agility classes and can turn his paw to flyball too. Rottweilers also make great family dogs, being surprisingly sensitive and eager to please. They definitely have a stubborn streak and sometimes get looked at less intelligent as a result.

Temperament

Happy Black and Tan Dog Wearing a Red Bandana
Though they are known to be aggressive, Rotties are highly devoted and obedient pups.

The Rottweiler is a stocky and sizeable canine that is almost always on the alert. This sense of attentiveness and sheer size make him both a great option as a family pet and a marvelous guard dog. They are affectionate and sociable with their family of humans, but they can be more aloof of strangers because of their guarding tendencies.

However, they have a reputation for being aggressive, dominant, and territorial. Rottweilers were originally bred for working and protecting, and their personality reflects this instinctual profession. Though they are inherently aggressive, they can be trained to behave well with humans and other animals.

Without adequate training, Rottweilers tend to bark and dig excessively, which can cause damage to your home and yard. They also require close monitoring due to their protective nature, especially around young children or large groups of people. These groups can come off as a threat to their human family.

Size & Appearance

Side View of Happy Black and Tan Dog Outdoors
Rotties are girthy, large dogs that have big, square-shaped heads.

Rottweilers are large dogs! An adult Rottweiler can grow to stand between 22 and 27 inches at the shoulder, weighing from 75 to 110 pounds. Female Rottweilers are generally smaller and lighter-boned than males.

These gigantic dogs have bulky bodies with broad chests. They have distinct block-shaped heads that hold their floppy ears and medium-sized, square-shaped muzzles. Thanks to their floppy lips, Rottweilers tend to drool, which can contribute to their intimidating looks. Most pure-bred Rottweiler puppies undergo a tail cutting of 1-2 vertebrae from their long, powerful tails.

Coats & Colors

Black and Tan Dog on a Bench
Rottweilers are most recognizable for their black coats with tan or rust markings.

The Rottweiler is always black with markings that range from deep mahogany to rust in color. These markings appear on the dog’s cheeks, over his eyes, on either side of his muzzle, underneath his tail, and on his chest and legs. You’ll also notice tan lines on your Rottie’s toes.

Rottweilers have a short double coat that’s coarse and straight. The dog’s outer coat is of medium length with shorter hairs on his ears, legs, and head. The fluffy undercoat is mainly found on the dog’s thighs and neck, and the density and quantity of the undercoat will depend on the climate in which he lives.

Because of their double coat, Rottweilers are moderate shedders. Twice a year in spring and fall, your Rottie will “blow” his coat. That means he’ll shed heavily to change his undercoat in line with the seasons.

Health

Black and Tan Dog on a Vet Table
Like many purebred dogs, Rottweilers have genetic health concerns to be aware of.

Like many large dogs, Rottweilers are prone to a few health problems that you must be aware of if you’re considering taking on one of these pups. A healthy Rottweiler has a life expectancy of 8 to 10 years.

Hip Dysplasia: Hip dysplasia is a hereditary condition where the hip joint has conformational problems, eventually causing the bone to degenerate and leaving the dog with painful arthritis.

There is an expensive surgical treatment option for hip dysplasia, and it can be managed with medication. However, you should always ask your puppy’s breeder for written confirmation that the pup’s parents have both been screened and cleared for hip dysplasia.

Elbow Dysplasia: Elbow dysplasia is a genetic condition that involves abnormalities in the multiple structures of the elbow joint, specifically concerning the cartilage and the structures that surround it. Ultimately, the elbow joint develops osteoarthritis.

Osteochondritis: Osteochondritis is a very common condition that affects the joints of young dogs that are growing rapidly. Joint surfaces (the articular cartilage) fail to form bone in specific areas, resulting in areas of thickened cartilage.

These weakened areas cause the thickened cartilage to come away from the healthy tissue that surrounds it, forming a flap. The flap of cartilage sometimes detaches from the joint surface, leading to the development of secondary osteoarthritis.

Cardiomyopathy: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition where the heart muscle becomes enlarged. One side of the heart is usually affected more than the other. When the ventricle is affected, it cannot pump blood to the lungs and body efficiently. That causes fluid to accumulate in the lungs, ultimately leading to congestive heart failure.

Subaortic stenosis (SAS): Subaortic stenosis is a narrowing of the aorta that takes blood away from the heart. The condition usually shows up as a minor heart murmur, but it’s a serious condition that can lead to sudden death, even in a young dog.

Von Willebrand’s Disease: Von Willebrand’s disease is a hereditary condition that is caused by a deficiency in the amount of a particular protein that assists in the clotting function of the blood.

Addison’s Disease: Addison’s disease is more correctly known as hypoadrenocorticism. The condition occurs when the adrenal glands don’t produce enough hormones, including steroids. Steroids help to regulate the dog’s internal organs and body systems. Without the right balance of these essential hormones, the dog’s body deteriorates, leading to severe complications, including death.

Cataracts: A cataract is an imperfection or opacity in the eye’s lens. The lens focuses light, and it should be completely clear. If your dog has a cataract, his vision is obscured. Cataracts can be the size of a pinpoint, which won’t be noticeable. However, some cataracts can grow large enough to cover the whole lens, causing blindness.

When buying a Rottweiler puppy, you must always ask the pup’s breeder to show you his parents’ health screening certificates. As you’ve seen, many of a Rottweiler’s health issues are inherited. That’s why it’s crucial that you know that your puppy’s parents have the necessary screening clearance.

Before a Rottweiler can be added to the Canine Health Information Center (CHIC) database, the American Rottweiler Club insists that the dog has clearance from the Canine Eye Registry Foundation. The dog will also need elbow and hip evaluations from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals, and an OFA heart examination certificate too.

To see if your puppy’s parents are listed on the database, search the CHIC and OFA websites.

Exercise & Living Conditions

Young Black and Tan Dog Running
These active pooches need at least an hour of daily exercise to stay in shape.

Although Rottweilers are naturally heavyset dogs, they can quickly become overweight if they don’t get enough exercise. An obese Rottweiler can suffer from joint problems, and excess weight can also cause complications such as heart disease and diabetes. They run into the same complications that their cousin the Doberman does.

So, make sure your Rottie enjoys a couple of long walks each day and some playtime too. Remember that the Rottweiler was bred to be a working dog, so he will thrive in a family that enjoys outdoor activities and lots of fun walking and hiking.

If you plan to harness train your Rottie, make sure you look at Dog Harnesses designed for Rottweilers who are notorious for pulling. Daily exercise is important to keep their weight down, but it’s also important to ensure your Rottweiler is well behaved on their outdoor excursions.

In theory, a Rottweiler could live outside. However, the breed is susceptible to excess heat, so you must never leave your Rottie outside in hot weather unless he has unlimited fresh water and plenty of shade in which to rest.

Because these pups are so large, their joints can become tired over time. You’ll want to invest in a high-quality dog bed that can fit a Rottweiler. They are also notoriously hard on toys, so keep in mind that you’ll likely need a few Rottie-ready dog toys that can withstand their strong jaws.

Training

Proud Black and Tan Dog After Training Session
Rotties are highly trainable and are often used in police work.

Rottweilers are very intelligent dogs that adapt very well to a structured training regimen. Although Rotties may look fierce, they are actually placid, loving dogs. Nonetheless, the early socialization and training of Rottie puppies are essential.

If you plan to crate train your Rottweiler, we recommend finding a crate that accommodates a Rottweiler’s size. Plan on purchasing one that will last from puppyhood to adulthood.

Nutrition

Black and Tan Dog Chewing
High-quality kibble that’s high in protein is best for your Rottie.

When choosing a food for your Rottweiler, always look for high-quality commercial food that has meat as its main ingredient. Avoid food that contains high levels of grain, meat meal, and by-products, as these ingredients won’t give your dog enough of the essential nutrients he needs.

Ideally, young puppies should be fed several times each day.

When your puppy reaches six months of age, and after that, you can reduce the frequency of feeding to twice daily. It’s vital that you don’t overfeed your Rottie, as large, heavy meals could cause your dog to develop a serious digestive condition called “bloat.”

It’s a good idea to ask your puppy’s breeder for recommendations as to what food you should give your new family member. If you’re unsure what food to give your adult Rottweiler, have a chat with your vet for advice.

Grooming

Young Black and Tan Getting a Bath
Rotties are low maintenance when it comes to grooming.

Ordinarily, you should brush your Rottweiler once a week, using a soft bristle brush or a hound mitt. That will help to keep your dog’s skin and coat healthy. During heavy shedding periods, you’ll need to brush your dog daily to get rid of all his loose hair.

If you decide to bathe your Rottweiler, only do so when the weather is warm enough for you to be comfortable in short sleeves. Despite their sturdy appearance, Rotties can feel the cold if they get wet!

Breeders & Puppy Costs

Four Black and Tan Puppies
Expect to spend anywhere from $850 to $4,000 on your purebred Rottwieler. 

Although you may see Rottweiler puppies advertised for sale in your local classified ads, it’s better to begin your search for a reputable breeder through the American Rottweiler Club (ARC) or on the American Kennel Club (AKC) website.

The ARC insists that breeders who advertise on their website abide by a list of mandatory practices, including health screening of all breeding stock for hereditary diseases. Also, ARC registered breeders must provide anyone buying one of their puppies with a written guarantee that they will take the dog back if the owner is unable to keep him.

When checking health screening certification for hip dysplasia, you want to see that clearance has been obtained from either the University of Pennsylvania (PennHip) or the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA).

Also, dogs should have been cleared for elbow dysplasia, and the dogs’ eyes should be tested annually by the Canine Eye Registration Foundation (CERF). Finally, the ARC insists that clearance of breeding dogs’ cardiac health is obtained.

Good breeders often have their dogs tested for thyroid problems and Von Willebrand’s disease too. Some breeders also go the extra mile by having their dogs certified by the American Temperament Test Society (ATT).

The price you’ll pay for a Rottweiler puppy depends on a few factors:

  • The region in which you live
  • The puppy’s sex
  • Any show ring titles held by the puppy’s parents
  • Whether the puppy has been bred to show or to be a pet

Generally, a well-bred puppy from a reputable dealer can cost from around $850 up to as much as $4,000.

Puppy farms or mills exist purely to produce lots of puppies very cheaply. To keep costs down, breeders don’t bother having their breeding animals health-screened, and the dogs are often kept in deplorable, unsanitary conditions.

Often, sick or diseased puppies are sold to unsuspecting buyers who later regret their purchase when the puppy becomes seriously ill soon after arriving in his new home.

You should also know that many pet stores source their puppies from puppy mills.

Rescues & Shelters

Happy Black and Tan Dog With Human
You would make a Rottie very happy if you find one in a shelter and take it home!

If you don’t want the hard work of training a puppy, you might want to consider taking an adult Rottweiler from a rescue center or shelter. If you do, check out the link to the Rottweiler Rescue Foundation. Also, Petfinder is a very handy website where you might discover your ideal forever canine companion.

However, do proceed with caution when taking a dog from a shelter, as these pups often come with no history. That means you won’t know if the Rottie you’ve fallen in love with has a reliable temperament or comes with any inherited health conditions.

Some shelters allow would-be adopters to take a dog on a short trial basis. That’s an excellent idea for both the dog and his potential new owners, as there’s always the option of returning the dog if you’re not compatible.

Because of their loyalty, Rottweilers have become very popular in the “designer dog” craze that’s taken the United States by storm. Here are a few of the popular different Rottweiler mixed breed pups you may be able to find in a shelter.

As Family Pets

So, now that you know more about the Rottweiler would this majestic, powerful breed make an ideal best friend for your household?

Let’s quickly recap what you’ve learned about the breed:

  • If you live in a small apartment, the Rottweiler is not the dog for you! These are large dogs that need plenty of space and preferably a big backyard to play in too.
  • Although the Rottweiler has a short coat, it’s a double coat, and that means your dog will shed moderately all year round with two heavy shedding periods in the spring and fall. You’ll need to be prepared to spend time grooming your Rottie, especially when he’s blowing his coat.
  • As Rottweilers are continual shedders, one of these pups wouldn’t suit someone who has a pet hair allergy.
  • Rottweilers are usually very gentle placid dogs, despite their rather fierce appearance. Rotties get on fine with other pets and with kids, although a gentle nudge from one of these pups would send a small child sprawling!
  • If you want a dog that’ll be a loyal guardian to your family and your property, a Rottweiler could make a great choice.
  • The Rottweiler is a working breed. For that reason, you’ll need to make sure that he gets plenty of exercise and playtime. If you have an outdoor lifestyle that involves lots of walking and hiking, a Rottie could be your perfect companion.
  • A Rottweiler probably wouldn’t enjoy living outside. Firstly, these are sensitive dogs who become very attached to their human family, and your pup could suffer from separation anxiety if you shut him out. Secondly, the Rottie is very heat sensitive and won’t do well if kept outside during hot weather.

In a nutshell, a Rottweiler would be a suitable pet for you if you have plenty of space and live an active lifestyle. A Rottie will happily play with your kids and other pets too, provided you take the time to socialize him properly when he’s a puppy.

Final Thoughts

If you have a large place with a garden and lots of room for a big dog, you might fancy taking on a Rottweiler.

Although Rotties can look rather fierce, they’re generally big softies at heart, making loyal and affectionate family pets that get along fine with kids and other pets. A Rottweiler would suit you best if your family is active and likes to get out for a hike or walk. Rotties are highly trainable, and they adapt well to many canine sports, including agility, obedience, and even flyball.

Although Rottweilers are short-coated, they have a double coat, and they do shed moderately all year round. That could spell trouble for allergy sufferers in your household.

If you do take on a Rottweiler, be sure to ask the breeder to show you the puppy’s parents’ health certifications, as these dogs can be prone to many congenital diseases.

Leave a Comment

7 Comments

Mary Pomposello

September 5, 2021 at 12:10 am

I had two Rotties. We just lost one. She was 12. She was the best dog. We also have a 3-year-old who is also a great. Once I got my first Rottie, I knew I will only have Rottweilers. They are the best.

Reply

Apiffany Gaither Billings

September 5, 2021 at 10:06 pm

We are sorry to hear about your loss.

Reply

Barbara

September 1, 2021 at 10:44 am

All my family have Rotties. My Sam is my second and is now a calm age three. He is full of life and a beautiful boy. He loves to run at the beach. Lots of people are ignorant of the breed and cross the road to avoid my Sam. We adore him. He has three long walks every day and another three shorter walks. These dogs are beautiful, loving, and full of life. What more could we ask for?

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Kevin McGee

August 10, 2021 at 6:58 pm

I have a 11 month old Rottie named Cyrus and he is our boy! We love him and have provided a loving home for him to be as successful of a pet and family member he can be. He is very obedient and very outgoing. He loves to play and when he hears that "W" word [walk] oh he perks up tail wagging and all. The best breed and our best friend!

Reply

Kelly Wilson

August 11, 2021 at 2:28 am

Sounds like an amazing dog Kevin! Thanks for stopping by to share your experience with our readers!

Reply

Denise

April 20, 2021 at 7:31 pm

We adopted Reagan @ 10 months, she turned 4yrs in March 2021. Reagan is part German Shepard and Rottie. She has Rottie coloring, a large muscular build and beautiful. Reagan is extremely sweet and loves attention, especially hugs.

Should anyone walk near our yard she is always on alert and barks to let us know. She also enjoys standing on the picnic table so she can check what’s going on! We also have a rescue dobbie the same age and two rescue yorkies. They all enjoy each other’s company and ALL sleep on our bed with us. Definitely puppy love!

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Kelly Wilson

April 20, 2021 at 11:55 pm

Sounds like you've been blessed with some wonderful dogs, Denise! Thanks for stopping by to comment and share your experience!

Reply